The weight of the structure was estimated based on the numbers discussed in Sheelagh Matthew’s book ” Structural Wonders – Beijing National Stadium”.
Total Structure weight (without spectators) = 45, 000 tons
Weight of steel = 42,000 tons
The following calculations were estimated based on some extended research and educated interpretations:
seats = 91,000 x 8 lb = 728 t
Internal systems and partitions = 5% weight of internal structure = 150 tons
Weight of Concrete = 45,000t – 42,000t – 728t – 150t = 2,122 tons
To resist the dead load of the structure, the stadium was places on a plinth.
The stadium can seat up to 91,000 spectators. With the service personnel and competitors the total occupancy can be reached 110, 000 people. For the purposes of a live load estimate, an average weight of a person will be used as 200 pounds.
The Stadium is located in the Beijing, China. Beijing lies roughly on the same latitude as Philadelphia, Denver and San Francisco. The Live loads due to the snow and wind will be similar to those in Philadelphia.
People = 110, 000 x 200 lb = 11, 000 tons
Snow (20 lb/sf) = 20 lb/sf * 62,500 sf (~roof area) = 625 tons
Wind Load = 90 mph ~ 25 lb/sf = 25 lb/sf * (1,093 ft (longest length) * 226 ft (height)) = 25lb/sf * 27,018 sf = 3,090 tons
Dead Load = 45,000 tons
Live Load (Vertical) = 11,625 tons
Live Load (Lateral) = 3,090 tons
Total Vertical Load = 56,625 tons / 62,500 sf = 0.906 tons/sf of load on the foundation
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